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NanoVector is a pre-clinical stage therapeutic drug company developing the world’s first commercially viable biologic nanoparticle-based therapeutic drug delivery system. The NanoVector breakthrough technology is being used to develop a family of targeted drugs for late stage metastatic cancers using the plant virus nanoparticle (PVN).  Effective targeting of chemotherapy has been highly sought after, because non-targeted chemotherapy causes considerable destruction of normal cells, resulting in severe adverse reactions.  With targeting, anticancer agents can concentrate in a cancer cell resulting in extremely high efficacy, while reducing uptake of the anticancer agent by healthy cells; diminishing toxicity to normal cells and thus minimizing unpleasant side effects. The NanoVector drug delivery system is based on an engineered plant virus: Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV).  It is found in the human food chain, in such foods as cherries, and in some municipal water supplies in temperate climates.  RCNMV is harmless to humans, will not replicate in a human cell, and has been found to be of low immunogenicity in testing of mice.  It is a soil virus and one of the most robust viruses known.  This plant virus has a 36 nanometer protein shell that with a hollow chamber that can be chemically opened and loaded with up to 1000 molecules of a small molecule drug.  NanoVector’s biologic nanoparticle has evolved for millions of years to become a quintessential intracellular delivery system that overcomes the manufacturing, loading, unloading and targeting technological challenges that plague other nanoscale delivery technologies.  In addition, the PVN has two unique characteristics that make it nature’s perfect drug delivery system.  First and foremost of these unique characteristics, and an inherent property of the virus, is a built-in sensor-actuator system.  When the therapeutic agent-carrying PVN enters a cell, it senses a change in chemical environment and automatically unloads its cargo.  Therefore the highly toxic therapeutic agent is released only in a cell, never in the blood stream as with manmade particles that depend upon capsule degradation or require an external trigger to open the particles for the release of their contents.  The second unique characteristic is a delayed drug release, enabling the PVN to travel deep within the cell prior to release, thereby avoiding efflux pumps in the cell membrane that could pump out the released drug. The biggest challenge in targeting cancer cells with a nanoparticle drug delivery system is identifying a cell surface receptor that is found on cancer cells but not targetable on healthy cells.  NanoVector has successfully addressed this challenge by targeting the N-Cadherin cell surface receptor. In healthy cells N-cadherin is found in cell-to-cell junctions in the nervous system, opening the door for severe side effects if small molecule drugs or antibody-drug conjugates are used to target this molecular receptor.  However the NanoVector nanoparticle is too large to enter the cell junctions of healthy cells, and therefore cannot target healthy cells. NanoVector has demonstrated that its PVN can effectively target N-cadherin on cancer cells but not in cell junctions between normal cells. The benefit derived from these features of the NanoVector nanoparticle and N-Cadherin targeting is the minimization of the horrendous side effects associated with free anti-cancer drugs in the blood stream.